A star is a giant ball of gas. The gas in it is so hot that it glows. The star consists mainly of two elements; hydrogen and helium.
The way to know stars is through measurement and comparison of their properties. The main visible characteristic of luminaries is their brightness (brilliance). It is estimated in so-called stellar magnitudes (denoted m). A difference of five stellar magnitudes corresponds to a difference in the apparent brightness of exactly 100 times. The smaller the magnitude of the star, the brighter it is.
Another important characteristic of a star that gives an idea of the power of its radiation is its luminosity. In order to calculate the luminosity of an object, you need to know how far away it is from us. The distance to distant and inaccessible stars can be determined from geometry by measuring the direction of this object from the two ends of a known segment (basis) and then calculating the size of the triangle formed by the ends of the segment and the distant object.
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